What grade would you give this college paper (10 pages)?
Terrorism, the use of covert violence by a group to bring about political or social change, is usually directed against a government but can also used against other ethnic groups, classes, or parties. Historically, terrorism has been used as a means to attempt many different ends. Civil wars, revolutionary wars, labour disputes, and resistance movements have all been accompanied by terrorism. The attempts of terrorists have been to overthrow both liberal democracies and oppressive tyrants, sometimes with an obvious link to economic or social crisis.
In today’s increasingly complex, technological, and globalized world terrorists have changed their methods with the times. They are adopting new targets, weapons, tactics, demands, and methods of organization. The old profiles of terrorists no longer seem to hold true as more and more terrorists are coming from many different economic and social backgrounds. It is a global phenomenon and yet each terrorist organization appears to have its own unique motivations. Although the reasons for their actions may be different, the methods, tactics and even networks used by terrorists are often shared and indicate a common factor.
Acts of terror may seem, and are often designed to seem, like senseless violence against a random target. To the average, uninvolved person such abominable actions indicate an insanity without logic. Certain individuals that are susceptible to joining terrorist organizations may be somehow psychologically predisposed, or they may see a moral justification of means by the ends they hope to achieve. Whatever the reasons they have, there is rationality and strategy behind the attacks they carry out. The terrorists make calculated plans of attack based on their own analysis of a cost and benefit scenario. They focus the extent of their resources to attack wherever the target is most vulnerable; they only need one successful attempt against a target that must be defensive on all fronts at all times.
Based of the reactionary nature of terrorism and the evidence that terrorists use logical reasoning there must be some causal factors that lend themselves to the strategies of terrorists. By examining pre-existing conditions within a country or region it is possible to draw conclusions about the tactics that terrorists will use. The factors considered for terrorism are similar to vulnerabilities of a disaster: resources, social demographics, and political institutions as well as historical background. These pre-existing conditions can be used to account for the targets terrorists chose, the actual method of attack, and the intended consequences.
Nigeria, with its environmentally diverse delta region, is a country that is representative of most post-colonial African nations in the challenges it has faced since its independence. As with many other countries all over Africa it saw violent conflict and struggles with development in the wake of its colonizers. Now Nigeria sees itself as a model for successful democracy in its region. After forty years of government characterized by rapid regime change and military dictatorships, they are now in the second decade of a functional democracy. Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and is home to over 250 ethnic groups, with Muslims, Christians, and people of indigenous beliefs. Additionally, like some other West African countries it is very rich in natural resources, with oil being its most profitable material. It is one of the strongest economies in Africa. As a result they have received lots of attention from multi-national corporations that have put pressure on the government to keep wages and benefits for Nigerian workers low. Urban areas in Nigeria only account for 25?f the country’s population; the majority of Nigerians are rural dwellers and rely on subsistence agriculture. There is also a prevalence of government corruption and prebendalism in which federal jobs are given primarily to family members and people from the same ethnic heritage.
Terrorism in Nigeria has appeared in many different forms, and it was even said by the U.S. State Department that Nigeria is an area prone to terrorist activity. Attacks on foreign companies in the Niger Delta have been growing in frequency and organization; recently a terrorist group known as MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) has declared war on the foreign investors in the region. There has also been separate instances of religiously motivated terrorism in Kano, Nigeria’s capital city. There have also been instances of state sponsored terrorism stemming out of recent elections and the sudden adoption of Sharia in most of the Northern States. The many conditions and forces acting within Nigeria have led to calculated acts of terrorism, by examining the pre-existing conditions inside the country a clear connection can be made between the conditions and the methods of terrorism.
The first pre-existing condition re
Not all terrorists use the same methods. Unless you are trying to tell me suicide bombing, hijackings, hostage taking, arson, assassination, etc. are all the same. There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism, by labeling it as a tactic you are widening the scope used to view terrorism from a moralistic and philosophical standpoint because that definition implies terrorists are soldiers.
P.S. this is sandy isn't it?
Asked By: gwar - 12/7/2008