Australia is a huge country the same size as Continental USA.
I come from NSW, so my answers will mostly be relative to that. Where I can elaborate more I will.
You have asked way to many questions, most which require a detailed answer.
1. Depending on where you live, i.e city vs country make a big difference. You can generally rent a place in the outskirts or a regional city in NSW for $300 + up to $1000 for inner city per week.
I live in a household with 3 adults. Our mortgage is a minimum repayment of $1500 a month, based on a loan of $200,000. Our food is approx $100 - $150 per week, our bills are quarterly. Water $200 - $230, Electricity $400 - $600 (in summer, using air con and running a pool), Gas $150 - $200. Phone is now monthly around $60 plus mobile phone, two prepaid and one billed to work.
2. Yep we do all that, in NSW we following the NRL (rugby league) and have one team in the AFL (Aussie rules, VIC based). We also have olympians in various sports. We enjoy swimming, playing a game of cricket, throwing a footy. Club footy and cricket, etc.. Lots of sports.
We enjoy heading to the beach, having a bbq and socialising with friends. We have nightclubs and pubs for dancing, some people take dance classes. We often have music on the background while we do things. We enjoy both domestic holidays such as a trip to Queensland or Victoria and international such as UK and Europe, US, Bali, etc..
3. Australia is suffering for the same problems the rest of the world is, though we are not in a recession as yet and are not likely too. Because of this our unemployment has rised, but Australia still hold the lowest unemployment rate in the western world.
The Australian dollar is buying approx 70 cents US. It was at 90-98 cents back in Sept. GDP I learnt in school but don't remember. Our major exports are minerals such as iron ore, coal, fuel, etc.. Here is a bit of a list http://www.dfat.gov.au/aib/trade_investment.html
4. They say our cities have air pollution and while I come from a regional coastal town, I have never noticed it.. I can breathe beautiful fresh air. We are a pretty clean and environmentally friendly country. I live near the steel works and unless I'm walking through it you don't notice it.
5. Men and Women have equal rights. We can vote and drink after 18. Drive alone after 17 (this varies from state to state), freedom of speech. We have equal employment opportunities. Ethical Practices. All the usual.
6. We have one of the best FREE health care systems in the world, if not the best. We have Medicare for all residents and citizens. We have an average life expectancy for a 1st world country. We have some people aged over 100. From looking at death notices in the local paper, most seem to pass away in their late 80s.
Our hospitals, while people complain are the best in the world. Some hospitals have had occurances with waiting times as they are understaffed due to the long hours and strain on staff. We have many public and private hospitals. We have one called RPA, which is shown as a tv show on some patients.
We all eat pretty well. I don't think there are many starving but there are some homeless. We battle the common eating disorders from anorexia to obesity. We have been recently named as the most overweight country. Overweight include 1kg over weight, but not the most Obese country, American own that. We don't have any 200kgs plus people.
7. We are growing in technology but are slightly behind the rest of the world. Most of our technology is imported. We have mobile phones, not a cellular network, with coverage over 99?f Australia, most of which is inhabitable. We have 15 free TV channels and may pay tv companies offering the range like the US. Our Broadband is where we are behind, our speeds and affordability is still lacking but it is being worked on.
8. We have all your normal emergency services Police, Fire and Ambulance, via 000, as well as extended services such as Police Rescue. In emergency situations I have found they take less then 15mins to arrive.
We have a relativly low crime rate esp. compared to the UK and US. We have little violence, terroism threats and guns are illegal. I feel completly safe walking alone in the city as a 22 year old female. Most of our crime involves alcohol or drugs.
9. Our seasons are opposite to the northern hemisphere.
Summer - 1 Dec - Feb 28/29
Autumn - 1 Mar - 31 May
Winter - 1 June - 31 Aug
Spring - 1 Sept - 30 Nov
We have a couple of snow resorts, some around Thredbo near Canberra in NSW and some in Victoria around Mt Buller. A lot of this snow is man made but we do get snow storms there in winter. We have had the rare snow in other regional areas such as the blue mountains. One year a regional victorian town had snow at xmas, in the middle of summer!! But that is extremly rare.
Here are some average temps.
Sydney - http://www.sydney.com.au/weather.htm
Melbourne - http://www.melbourne.com.au/climate.htm
Brisbane - http://www.brisbane-australia.com/brisbane-weather.html
Adelaide - http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=23090
Canberra - http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=70014
Perth - http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=9225
Darwin - http://www.weatherzone.com.au/climate/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=14015
10. 10/10. I love living in Australia, would never live anywhere else. Our only negative is the distance to overseas holiday spots, but its a positive too.
I hope this helps with your project, feel free to email me if you have any questions.