I can not tell you specifically the answers to the questions as they were laid out by you but I can give some insight to some for the information that you ask about. The links provided have numerous pages and information from various European countries and sources.
I hope that you find the answers that you seek or that at least there is some bits of useful information in what I present.
"Spanish government immigration policy costs migrant lives"
"26 August 2004
The recently elected Socialist Party government’s immigration policy has done nothing to alleviate the suffering of an increasingly desperate number of immigrants trying to reach Spain from Africa.
In the main it has continued the right-wing policy of its Popular Party (PP) predecessor, which allowed small numbers of migrants into Spain to work in menial jobs, whilst excluding the vast majority as part of its efforts to consolidate a “Fortress Europe”.
Spain has come under pressure from the European Union to strengthen its borders, and has received massive funding in order to stem the flow of refugees from Morocco and Algeria. One of the government’s first measures for controlling migration flows was to raise the height of the double fence that surrounds Spain’s remaining possessions in North Africa from 4 metres to over 8.2 metres.
The majority of migrants who try to reach the Spanish enclave of Ceuta on the African coast hide in mountain camps, living in makeshift shelters before making the 50-kilometre trek overland to Ceuta. While a handful avoids the Spanish police, most are sent back with beatings and teargas in their lungs."
"Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona
Background: The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population.
Methods: Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to
home, or death), medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered.
Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from lowincome countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five
groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect.
Results: With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults.
Conclusion: Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry, which is becoming ever more frequent in hospitals and which overcomes the lack of clinical information related to outpatient activity."
Finally if you have read the first link from 2004 then this link should create some questions and thoughts about the idea of immigration and the policies they run by.
I personal think most of the debate over or about illegal immigration will end when we as a country start to acknowledge that by accepting them and allowing them to work, live and pay taxes we as a country will profit by their presence.
It is not meant to mean that we just hand out citizenship's, illegals can still be "shorted" certain rights and benefits while acting and paying for their living here while earning the rights and privileges afforded to citizens.
Before I get slammed for this idea remember that it is not written or explained by any means in it's full capacity, I just sorta threw it out here with this link.
So Charlie there's my answer again I hope that it serves you some purpose.
Edit: JSmith I did not retaliate with comments of racist or by being mean, your assumption of the guy above you proving your point that "supporters dodge the facts" is about as helpful as the answer you gave Charlie for his question, in that you say nothing.