Here are some consequences of the Civil Rights Movement:
I. The shift to Republicanism is explained primarily in terms of race and taxes. In presidential campaigns, there is a new polarization:
A. taxpayers vs. tax recipients
B. meritocracy vs. special preference
C. private vs. public sector
D. workers vs. jobless
E. less government vs. more government
II. Race, especially, has provided a focus for conflicts over such subjects as social welfare spending, neighborhood schooling, tax distributions, criminal violence, sexual conduct, family structure, political competition and union membership. At a local level, we see conflicts among whites, blacks and hispanics over such issues as zoning regulations on Long Island, municipal residency requirements for employment in black Detroit and its white suburbs, the content of promotion exams for police in New York City, the choice of basketball or tennis courts in Los Angeles parks, the location and course content of "magnet schools" in Birmingham, Alabama. Race and taxes together functioned to force the attention of the public on the costs of federal policies and programs. Ordinary white citizens experienced a loss of control over school selection, union apprenticeship programs, hiring, promotion, neighborhoods, public safety, sexual morals, and a stable social order. These "costs" were then driven home by rising tax burdens to pay for such services as busing, Medicaid, subsidized public housing, law enforcement, prisons, welfare, and lawyers to enforce civil rights laws.
III. Taxes and race produced a chain reaction with two other forces. First, there was great resentment toward "rights" movements for various groups that were supported by Democratic liberals. These included immigrants, criminal defendants, women in the workplace, pornographers, gays and lesbians, and reproductive rights groups (pro-choice). Between 1976 aand 1980, there was a massive shift of white Christian fundamentalists from the Democrats to the Republicans, largely for these reasons. Second, liberals and blacks pushed reform of the rules of the Democratic Party in the sixties and seventies, undermining the power of segregationist southernors and blue-collar northernors. Many saw the Democratic "reformers" as cut off from the rank and file of the Democratic Party.
IV. Correspondingly, the rioting, welfare dependency, and perceived family dependency among ghetto blacks led to a loss of empathy for the black poor. Whites now said: "It's their fault."
V. As white empathy decreased, demands upon whites increased: from basic rights for blacks and other minorities to racial preferences. Many whites saw themselves as victims of a liberal establishment.
VI. Ronald Reagan in the '80s was an extender and refiner of the Republican revolution. Politically, he was positioned well:
A. Not racist but "populist"--anti big government; pro working man
B. Opposed to "unnecessary" government regulations and enforcement mechanisms
C. A supporter of "merit" in school and job selection
These views resonated well with most whites.
VII. Other factors contributing to the Republican revolution included the following:
A. Democrats were seen as weaker in foreign policy matters (e.g., Persian Gulf, communism)
B. There was a collapse of unionized plants in America
C. With declines in mostly black and Hispanic cities, there was white flight to the suburbs, and greater independence from the cities.
D. Many saw the Democratic Congress as beholden to "special interests"
E. The Democrats seemed unable to respond to globalization of the economy. For example, as jobs left Detroit and nearby white ethnic suburbs, Democrats were blamed for favoring blacks as employment opportunities declined.
Answered By: MaxPower - 2/8/2009