I personally use the Equal House system (which does make me an astrological minority), so I'm going to focus more on the character analysis. I'm just not good with orbs or degrees, as my primary interest in astrology is synastry (I'm a Libra; quelle surprise ^_~) and also personality analysis. I'm going to focus on the Capricorn, as after editing and trying to post more I've found that I do not have enough space to get into the rest and can't post more than one answer.
Also, this might be very long, so I apologize, but I like to be thorough and helpful.
Sun, Mercury, Uranus, Neptune in Capricorn:
The sun rules the core of who you are and is your true self. Thus, your sun sign is reflective of who you really are. Even though other sign influences can and do alter your chart, you will always be your sun sign. The other influences in the chart refine your sun, but your sun is always there and is the most important consideration in a chart.
Mercury rules communication and the mental processes. The sign in which your Mercury is placed is indicative of how you will communicate and express yourself, as well as how you think and process information. You will think and communicate much in the manner of your Mercury sign. Often, the Sun and Mercury are the same. Mercury can only be one sign before your sign, your own sign, or one sign after.
Neptune is associated with dreams, fantasy, and illusions, and also forms of escape. It's very much connected to the 'hidden' and the 'unseen'. Here is an excellent link about Neptune:
Uranus is associated with upheaval, shocks, revolution, awakening, and basically anything that turns the world upside-down. Here is a good link about Uranus: http://astrology.about.com/od/advancedastrology/p/Uranus.htm
Capricorn is a cardinal earth sign. Cardinal signs (Libra, Aries, Cancer, and Capricorn) tend to be initiators. Earth sign people are usually very practical and concrete. Capricorns, like Cancers, are often very attached to their family and also to tradition (oddly enough, though, most Capricorns that I've met, with only a few exceptions, are politically liberal). The introverted 'brand' of Capricorn is very serious, hard-working, loyal, and never puts pleasure before work. The more outgoing type of Capricorn tends to be playful, but still takes his/her work very seriously. Often, a job/career is Capricorn's main area of interest/focus in life. They are very aware of 'status' and they are definitely 'climbers': some are social climbers, some are career climbers, and some are both. They tend to respect authority and often become authority figures themselves. Capricorns are often not good with change and tend to stand by the "tried and true" way of doing things. They are often good judges of quality and, while they usually aren't extravagant or fond of spending money, they will buy fewer things of good quality and do not like to waste money. They are usually very ambitious and career-oriented: the conflict between career and family can be more painful for them than for other signs. They are not usually good at showing emotions openly. They also tend to try to find practical uses for everything. They often have steady brown eyes and dark hair, but even the blonde and blue-eyed (or otherwise lighter-colored) Cappies tend to have an 'air' about them of seriousness, practicality, and ambition. Many Capricorn women do not wear makeup and Capricorns of both sexes tend not to be overly flashy with their appearance, unless they have a lot of fire in their chart. They usually respect and sometimes even revere their elders. They're not always inherently creative, but they often have a knack for putting things together (e.g., interior decorating). They are often either very skeptical or else very traditionalist if they are in a religion, from my personal experience, and those who are religious traditionalists tend to focus more on the tradition side of the religion than the spirituality side of it. (Most Cappies that I've known have been atheist, and most atheists that I have known are Capricorns). I haven't met any highly spiritual Capricorns, but I'm sure that they are out there and most Cappies who are spiritual probably have a Cancer, Pisces, Scorpio, or Aquarius influence in their charts. As for love, Capricorns can go either way. Many marry for reasons other than love, although not all. Many Capricorn men have affairs (though not all), from my observation. Often, they tend to have a "dry" sense of humor and can be very funny with one-liners and deadpan humor. They tend not to have many close friends (although often have many business contacts or casual acquaintances), but they are loyal to those that they *truly* love. Many appreciate good manners. Cappies also usually have a strong interest in history and are very interested in the past. (Most of the history majors that I've known have been either Capricorn or have had a prominent Capricorn placement in their chart).