Psychologists as you know have a Phd in Clinical/or Counseling Psychology. The difference is the curriculum and of course the length and focus of curriculum and training. As you know from being a psychology major, in the PhD programs especially there is a large component of "research". As well as, of course, behaviorism, cognition, and also psychological "testing". For example, there are psychologists who may work for schools who do IQ testing and other educational testing with children and assist with developing learning plans. There are psychologists who work in neuropsychology who focus on perhaps psychological testing, they review brain images, and then work with the patient on goals and such. There are other duties as well. Example of job description: http://www.nslijcareers.com/jobs/neuropsychologist-job-bay-shore-new-york-2959669
And there are your psychologists who work in private practice, mental health hospitals, clinics who provide therapy services to patients/clients. Depending on the job, being on call may be part of those duties. It all depends on the work setting.
The more specialized a Psychologist, the more you need to be willing to relocate. For example, when I searched neuropsychologist, there are only a couple of positions currently showing up on the Indeed search http://www.indeed.com.
Also, because Psychologist positions are at a premium, meaning there are not a "ton" of psychologist jobs...........NY has approximately 234 http://www.indeed.com/jobs?q="psychologist"&l=new+york
whereas there are 700 social work positions http://www.indeed.com/jobs?q="social+worker"&l=new+york
Keep in mind though that if interested in becoming a psychologist, not all psychologists are "therapists".
Social work curriculum does not focus on psychological "testing", so social workers in clinical positions will focus more on psychosocial assessments, psychological assessments, and using the person in the environment (a person is just more than their problem, etc). Some of the perspectives rooted in social work is the strengths perspective, for example.
Social work job duties/responsibilities will depend of course on the job position we have, which as you can see below will definitely vary on the type of work we do. Social workers can work in various settings, to include administrative jobs. Some individuals with social work degrees, for example, write grants, do research and work on fundraiser in agencies that may be not for proft. Social workers work in health care settings (hospice, home health, hospitals, nursing homes); mental health settings (state department of mental health, residential treatment centers, alcohol/drug rehab, etc); dept of social services (child protective services, foster care, investigator, etc); other state jobs may include probation and parole officers; youth services (to include juvenile facilities, counseling, residential); dept of aging (adult protective services, community support worker); maternal health (education, home visits, etc); and other public health positions.
Social workers who have their Masters in Social Work and a clinical license can work for the federal government, to include the Veterans Administration as well as a civilian working on military installations. Other positions may include working as a victim advocate; domestic violence shelters; grass roots organizations (i.e. I saw a job looking for a social worker to work for Mothers Against Drunk Driving); organizations/agencies that provide services for those who are homeless (i.e. Salvation Army, catholic charities).
Licensed clinical social workers can also work independently in private practice or they work in the private practice of other licensed clinicians (i.e. Psychologists). They can diagnose mental disorders as well and bill insurance or private pay.
Salaries for those in the social work field as well as psychologists will vary depending on where you work. As you can see above, social workers who in many different settings. I had a Psychology professor at a community college who took a very large pay cut to work as a professor there, but he enjoyed teaching. He had worked in private practice with wealthy clients, and made over six figures but he got tired of hearing about the problems and suffering of life 8 hours a day, 5 days a week. He sat in an office and had patients all day long. There is something for everyone!