That kind of depends on what employment you will seek. Anyone who studies crime can call themselves a criminologist, which means that it really is not a profession. Sociology is the primary science, Criminology is a sub-group, and Criminal Justice (CJ) is a sub-group of Criminology. CJ is the study of police, corrections, and legal functions (but not the study of law, per se, which would lead to a Juris Doctorate), and each of those three are specializations within CJ study. Criminology and CJ can incorporate psychological theory as well as biological/genetic theories of behavior.
Primarily, an academically credentialed Criminologist can teach at the college-level, and possibly consult (but you would probably need some specialization, like corrections, violence in the work place, criminal profiling, etc.). Review of the website of the American Society of Criminology ((http://www.asc41.com/)
will indicate that there are many specialization fields within Criminology, the divisions of the society are:
• Division on Corrections & Sentencing
•Division on Critical Criminology
•Division of Experimental Criminology
•Division of International Criminology
•Division on People of Color & Crime
•Division on Women & Crime
On the ASC website is a lengthy list of areas of expertise claimed by members ((http://www.asc41.com/expertiseNew/expertiseHome.html).
There are numerous jobs in the Criminal Justice field, like police, federal agents, probation officers, intelligence analysts, criminalists, corrections officers, juvenile justice personnel, private security (which has also become a separate academic subject at the graduate level), and many more, gun-carrying and not.
There is such a thing as forensic criminology, and some criminologists specialize in areas like criminal profiling, evidence evaluation, and crime reconstruction (see: Petherick, W., Turvey, B. E., Ferguson, C. E. (2010). Forensic Criminology. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.). However, forensic criminology is not widely acknowledged.
"Forensic psychology involves application of psychological research, theory, and clinical practice to the legal/criminal justice system. …
•Psychological Evaluation And Expert Testimony
•Testimony And Evaluation Regarding Civil Issues
•Assessment, Treatment, And Consultation Regarding Individuals With A High Risk For Aggressive Behavior
•Research, testimony and consultation on psychological issues impacting on the legal process
•Specialized treatment service to individuals involved with the legal system
•Consultation to lawmakers about public policy issues with psychological implications and training to law enforcement, criminal justice, correctional and mental health systems on forensic issues
•Analysis of issues related to human performance, product liability and safety
•Court-appointed monitoring of compliance with settlements in class-action suits affecting mental health or criminal justice settings." (Pecano, n.d.)
Few forensic psychologists conduct criminal profiling on a regular basis; however, there are some university programs in England for investigative psychology, such as those taught by Alison (2005) and Canter (2009). Other sub-specialties of Forensic Psychology are:
•Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling
•Criminal Psychology & Criminal Behavior
•Victimology and Victims Services
•Psychology and the Courts (Pecano, n.d.)
The Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology (look for schools represented by authors):